95 statistics about London

London – our capital city, and a thriving hub for businesses, the arts, and people from the UK and the rest of the world alike. It goes without saying that London is a fascinating city, underpinned by several facts about what it is and what made it the city it is today.

With that in mind, we’d like to give homage to our capital city with a round-up of 95 fascinating statistics about London. We’re going to take a deep dive into facts about London’s people, businesses, culture, hospitality and history.

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Statistics about people in London

Population data

  • As of 2024, London’s population is approximately 9 million, making it the largest city in the UK and accounting for 13% of the country’s total population.
  • According to latest figures, in 2022, there were 109,500 births and 52,000 deaths in London, resulting in a natural population increase of 57,500.
  • Life expectancy in London varies by borough but generally stands around 80 years for men and 84 years for women.
  • The average infant mortality rate in London is 3.3 per 1,000 live births, compared to 3.7 per 1,000 in England overall.
  • Approximately 20% of London’s population is under 18, highlighting its relatively young demographic profile.
  • Circa 12% of London’s population is aged 65 and over, which is lower than the national average.

Diversity in London

  • Around 40% of London residents were born outside the UK, giving it one of the highest immigrant populations in the world.
  • About 300 different languages are spoken in London, with English being the most common.
  • London experienced a net international migration inflow of 130,200 people in 2022, while domestic migration saw an outflow of 125,800.
  • London hosts a multitude of cultural festivals and events, reflecting its diverse population.

Education, employment, economy

  • 65.7% of London’s adult population was employed in 2023, higher than the 60.4% employment rate in the rest of England.
  • 31% of adults in London are economically inactive, meaning they are not employed and not seeking employment.
  • There are 296,500 more men employed than women in London, with men also being more likely to be self-employed.
  • In 2021-22, 80% of disadvantaged Key Stage 5 (KS5) leavers and 86% of non-disadvantaged KS5 leavers in London had Level 3 qualifications (e.g., A-levels).
  • The median household income in London is higher than the UK average, reflecting the city’s significant economic disparity.
  • Around 27% of London’s population lives in poverty, a higher rate compared to the national average.
  • London has some of the highest housing costs in the UK, with average rent significantly exceeding the national average.


  • Over 50% of journeys in London are made using public transport, one of the highest rates in any major global city.
  • LLondon has a higher crime rate compared to other regions in the UK, with significant variations across different boroughs.

Statistics about business in London

Number of businesses within London

  • As of early 2023, there were approximately 1.1 million private sector businesses in London.
  • London is home to about 20% of all UK startups, with approximately 100,000 new businesses created annually.
  • London has the highest business density in the UK, with 131 businesses per 1,000 residents.
  • London has a significant number of high-growth firms, with about 1 in 5 businesses experiencing substantial growth.
  • As of April 2024, 95% of businesses in London were trading, with 86% fully trading and 9% partially trading.

Imports and exports

  • In the last 12 months, 21% of London businesses with 10 or more employees have exported goods or services.
  • 26% of London businesses reported importing goods or services in the same period.
  • 61% of exporting businesses reported stable or increased exports in March 2024 compared to the previous year.
  • 67% of importing businesses reported stable or increased imports in the same period.

Sector data

  • The Real Estate sector saw the largest growth since 2020, increasing by 19,000 businesses (15%).
  • The technology sector is also particularly strong, with over 18% of UK tech companies based in London.
  • London is a global financial hub, with financial services contributing over £60 billion annually to the UK economy.
  • The retail sector in London employs around 400,000 people, making it one of the largest employment sectors in the city.
  • Sectors like Construction and Wholesale & Retail Trade saw significant business reductions, with Construction losing 109,000 businesses since 2020.


  • London has over 270 million square feet of office space, with a significant portion located in the City and Canary Wharf.
  • Around 41% of London businesses survive their first five years, slightly higher than the national average.
  • Approximately 30% of London businesses are owned by women, reflecting a growing trend in female entrepreneurship.
  • London businesses employ around 6.4 million people, accounting for 19% of total UK employment.
  • Tourism generates approximately £36 billion annually for London businesses, significantly impacting hospitality and retail.

Statistics about culture in London

Museums, libraries and landmarks

  • London is home to some of the world’s most famous museums, such as the British Museum, which welcomed over 6 million visitors annually before the pandemic.
  • The British Library in London holds over 170 million items in its collection, making it one of the largest libraries in the world.
  • Buckingham Palace, open to the public during certain times of the year, attracts more than 500,000 visitors annually.
  • The Tower of London, a historic castle, receives over 2.8 million visitors each year.

Art, music, and creativity

  • Over 5,000 film and TV productions are shot in London annually, contributing more than £2 billion to the economy.
  • Each London Borough of Culture receives £1.35 million to support local cultural activities and events.
  • The Royal Albert Hall hosts over 390 events annually, including the famous BBC Proms.
  • The West End, London’s primary theatre district, saw approximately 15 million ticket sales in 2019.
  • The Notting Hill Carnival, one of the largest street festivals in Europe, attracts around 2 million visitors every year.
  • The O2 Arena in London is one of the busiest music venues in the world, with over 2 million attendees in 2023.
  • The Fourth Plinth in Trafalgar Square is one of the world’s most renowned public art commissions, showcasing contemporary art to millions of people each year.
  • London is a significant hub for the film industry, hosting major events like the BFI London Film Festival, which draws around 180,000 attendees annually.
  • Tate Modern, one of the leading modern art museums, recorded 5.9 million visitors in a single year, making it one of the most visited museums globally.
  • London’s creative industries, including fashion, design, and digital media, employ over 800,000 people.
  • Covent Garden is a popular area for street performances, with hundreds of licensed performers entertaining visitors daily.
  • The London Literature Festival at the Southbank Centre draws tens of thousands of visitors each year.
  • London hosts prestigious cultural awards such as the Olivier Awards for theatre and the BAFTAs for film and television.


  • Cultural Tourism: Cultural tourists contribute significantly to London’s economy, spending approximately £16.3 billion annually.
  • Parks and Open Spaces: London’s public parks, such as Hyde Park and Regent’s Park, are venues for numerous cultural events and festivals, attracting millions of visitors annually.

Statistics about hospitality in London

Revenue and growth

  • London’s hospitality industry revenue grew to £46 billion in 2023, surpassing the pre-pandemic level of £43 billion in 2019.
  • The sector grew on average 7.7% per month, outpacing the national average of 5.6%.
  • More than 250 new restaurants opened in London in 2023, a 4% increase from 2022.


  • London is the most attractive European city for hotel investment in 2024, with significant investment and M&A activities planned.
  • Over half of hospitality leaders expect London’s RevPAR to grow between 4% and 7% in 2024.
  • 58% of respondents expect London’s Gross Operating Profit Per Available Room (GOPPAR) to grow between 1% and 5% in 2024.
  • The demand for quality hotel assets in London remains strong, with many potential buyers seeking to enter or expand in the market despite bid-ask gaps in pricing.
  • Due to cost pressures, hotels are focusing on radical transformations to improve operational efficiency and reduce costs.
  • Labour costs per occupied room in London’s hotels have increased by around 15% from pre- to post-COVID levels.


  • London’s live music events saw millions of attendees, with significant performances from artists like Beyoncé and Harry Styles filling major stadiums.
  • The O2 Arena venue sold over 2.5 million tickets in 2023, marking a record-breaking year.
  • ABBA Voyage alone attracted over 1 million visitors, contributing £177 million to London’s GVA.
  • Recent BST Hyde Park welcomed 555,000 guests, with tickets selling out faster than pre-pandemic levels.
  • December 2023 saw record sales for Boxpark, with a 22% increase compared to December 2022.

Investments and challenges

  • 73% of hospitality executives are optimistic about the long-term future of the UK hotel market.
  • Rising energy and utility costs remain a significant concern, impacting profit margins across the hospitality sector.
  • Only 22% of hospitality executives see digital transformation as a key priority for the coming year, a significant decrease from 48% in 2022.
  • The sector continues to face challenges with labour shortages, impacting service levels and operational costs (Deloitte United States).
  • Inflation, particularly in food and beverage costs, continues to pressure the hospitality industry’s bottom line.

Statistics about London’s history

  • Founding of London: London was founded by the Romans in 43 AD and named Londinium.
  • After the decline of the Roman Empire, Londinium was abandoned for nearly 500 years, from 410 to 880 AD.
  • In the 2nd century AD, Romans built a defensive wall around Londinium using approximately 85,000 tons of Kentish ragstone).
  • Anglo-Saxon London: The Anglo-Saxons reoccupied the area around 1.6 km from Londinium by the 7th century, renaming it Lundenwic.
  • Vikings captured and sacked London multiple times during the 9th and 10th centuries.
  • Constructed in the 11th century, Westminster Abbey became the coronation church of English monarchs.
  • Built by William the Conqueror in the 11th century, the Tower of London has served as a royal residence, fortress, and prison.
  • The Norman Conquest of England in 1066 led to the establishment of Norman rule in London.
  • The Magna Carta: Signed in 1215 near London at Runnymede, the Magna Carta is a foundational document in English legal history.
  • By 1300, London had a population of over 100,000, growing to become a major European cultural centre.
  • Black Death: The Black Death in the 14th century significantly decreased London’s population.
  • Population Decline: During the Great Plague of 1665, London lost about one-fifth of its population.
  • The Great Fire of London in 1666 destroyed nearly 70% of the city.
  • Great Fire Rebuilding: The rebuilding of London after the Great Fire was led by Sir Christopher Wren, including the design of St. Paul’s Cathedral.
  • The Industrial Revolution transformed London into a major industrial and commercial hub in the 18th and 19th centuries.
  • The London Underground, opened in 1863, is the world’s first underground railway.
  • The Victorian era saw significant improvements in London’s infrastructure, including sewage systems and railways.
  •  In 1907, London witnessed the largest public demonstration supporting women’s right to vote, known as the Mud March.
  • The Blitz during World War II killed more than 30,000 London residents and destroyed much of the city
  • Various Roman buildings, such as the city walls and an amphitheater, can still be seen in London today.

If you would like to learn more about how our team use data to drive successful campaigns, or on anything else related to digital marketing, you can speak to a member of our team!

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Deeper insights

We love a good statistics round-up here at Embryo and there’s plenty to sink your teeth into on our blog!

We’ve got round-ups of data relevant to current affairs and events, like our 19 statistics about The Euros, and mental health statistics of 2024. And of course, as a full-service digital marketing agency, it’s only right that our team showcase their expertise with plenty of articles about trends and developments in the industry. We all know how important video content is becoming, so why not read up on some TikTok and reel statistics, or even some data about Youtube ads?




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